Is Xinjiang Safe? A Guide to China’s Troubled Region

Is Xinjiang safe? Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the troubled province in far northwestern China is often in the news, but for all the wrong reasons. I have travelled through Xinjiang on many occasions over the past six years on my way between China and home in the UK.

Here I will try and dispel some of the myths about travel in this region and tell you how I found the situation each time. So, is Xinjiang safe to visit? Let’s find out…

Please note: This article is about travel in the region and is not passing comment on the Uyghur separatist movement or China’s response to it.

Want to know about the rest of China? Check out my new article is China safe to visit?

A brief introduction to Xinjiang and the Uyghurs

Uyghurs in Xinjiang
Uyghurs in Xinjiang

Xinjiang feels more like its Central Asian neighbours than the Middle kingdom with its rolling steppe and deserts dotted with yurts, mountains and alpine lakes. The Uyghur people of Xinjiang are Turkic Muslims and are recognized as one of China’s ethnic minorities.

There is a separatist movement with some Uyghurs wanting independence from Beijing and to form an East Turkestan state, which the Chinese government is trying to crush (with relative success).

Terrorist incidents have occurred in the region with things coming to a head in 2014 and 2015. Since then, the heavy security presence in the region has seemingly managed to quell the violence. Sporadic outbursts of violence across China, linked to Uyghur separatism, are occasionally reported.

Where is Xinjiang

China Map
China Map showing Xinjiang Province

Xinjiang is located in the far north-west of China bordering Mongolia to the north, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Pakistan to the west and Tibet to the south. The city of Urumqi is some 2,700km from Beijing.

Do I need a Special Permit to Visit Xinjiang?

Unlike nearby Tibet, you don’t need any special permits to enter Xinjiang. It’s as simple as booking a train ticket or flight. If you have been to Xinjiang previously and planning on returning to China, it is best not to allude to your visit when applying for a new visa as there are stories of people being refused a Chinese visa due to visiting the region.

Is Xinjiang Safe to Visit?

Police in Xinjiang
Paramilitary police patrol a Uighur neighbourhood in Urumqi, Xinjiang province, China, on Friday, July 10, 2009. Photographer: Nelson Ching/Bloomberg News

It is perfectly safe to travel in Xinjiang and thankfully the rare terrorist incidents have decreased over the years, in no small part to the heavy military and police presence in the region.

Many Uyghurs are conservative Muslims so it pays to dress and act modestly when in Xinjiang.

Take the usual precautions when visiting markets and bazaars and don’t flash the cash or expensive camera equipment (the latter is likely to land you in more trouble with the security forces).

Police and Army Checkpoints

The reality is that you will likely face more problems with the police and military in the region than with the local population.

When travelling the region you will face multiple stops at police and army checkpoints. If travelling by bus or taxi, you will need to get out to be questioned and have your details taken. Be polite with the authorities who are usually armed to the teeth!

Is Xinjiang Safe for Using Public Transport?

Xinjiang Mountains
Tian Shan Mountains in China’s Xinjiang Province

Public transport is safe in Xinjiang due to the heavy police presence around every train station and bus stop. Allow at least two hours to check-in at the station in larger cities like Urumqi as there are many checks to go through.

You will not be able to bring any bladed items (including swiss army knives), aerosol sprays like deodorant or hairspray and anything that may be construed as a weapon.

There are frequent checkpoints across the region so you will need to get used to repeating the process as you travel.

Entering Buildings

To enter most buildings in cities like Urumqi such as shopping malls, restaurants, post offices and banks you will be searched and need to go through metal detectors.


When in cities or in Xinjiang’s border areas it’s best to avoid photography anywhere near soldiers, police, mosques or similar places where flashpoints can occur.

Chinese Border Crossing in Xinjiang

Border Post

Expect more questioning if you are crossing in or out of China through Xinjiang. I have found on every occasion the police at the border to be suspicious and hostile.

On my last visit in 2019 my phone was confiscated and a security agent spent an hour going through my pictures and messages, asking questions about anything they thought was poking fun at China. There are recent reports of the authorities adding spyware to foreign tourists’ phones.

How to Get to Xinjiang

Xinjiang is easily reachable from the rest of China by plane and train. Urumqi and Kashgar are the major cities and transport hubs in the region.

Read: How to Book Train Tickets in China

Reaching Xinjiang from Neighbouring Countries

Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert

It’s very easy to reach Xinjiang from neighbouring Kazakhstan. There are daily buses between Urumqi and Almaty as well as less frequent trains (two per week pre covid).

Entering China from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is a little more difficult with no public transport, but is possible. See Caravanistan for more.

What is there to see and do in Xinjiang

Travelling in Xinjiang is not for the faint of heart; however, the region is stunningly beautiful so makes it a great destination for adventurous travellers. The area around Sayram Lake close to the border with Kazakhstan is especially beautiful.


Urumqi Skyline and Tian Shan Mountains

Capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Urumqi is an ugly concrete jungle with countless checkpoints and a very heavy police and army presence. The only reason I have for travelling to Urumqi is as a base for entering nearby Kazakhstan.

That said, there are a few points of interest including a nice park and temple overlooking the city with views to the Tian Shan mountains beyond. Urumqi can act as a useful base for exploring the region, but it’s not a tourist destination in and of itself.


Flaming Mountains, Turpan

Turpan is the second-lowest point on earth at 154m below sea level. It is also famous for its cotton and grape growing industries. Turpan is home to China’s tallest minaret, the Emin Minaret which is worthy of a visit.


Mosque in Xinjiang
Mosque in Xinjiang

Unlike Urumqi, the Silk Road city of Kashgar is worthy of a visit and it definitely feels more like Central Asia than China with its bazaars and minarets. Kashgar is also the start of the legendary Karakorum Highway which leads down to Pakistan and crosses some of the most beautiful scenery in China.

Sayram Lake

Sayram Lake
Sayram Lake

I often see Sayram Lake when taking the bus between Urumqi and Almaty in Kazakhstan and always wish I could stop there and spend time exploring this heavenly looking area.

Conclusion to Is Xinjiang Safe

So, is Xinjiang safe? The answer is a resounding yes, however, you need to prepare yourself for travel in a region that has suffered much unrest. If you can negotiate the checkpoints and delays, then Xinjiang offers a rewarding experience for adventurous travellers!

Dunhuang, Gobi Desert, China

About the author:

Steve Rohan is a writer from Essex, England. He has traveled to over 60 countries, lived in Armenia, China and Hong Kong, and is now living the digital nomad life on the road.

Steve prefers “slow travel” and has covered much of the world by train, bus and boat. He has been interviewed multiple times by the BBC and recently featured in the documentary Scariest Places in the World. See the About page for more info.

Where I am now: Yerevan, Armenia 🇦🇲

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